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Thursday, September 24, 2009


Cricket is the most played and well watched sport. Kabaddi, Badminton and Volleyball are also played in schools. Indoor sports like Chess and Carromare also played in urban areas. T N Parameswaran, national chesschampion in 1982 and 1996 and who also represented India in ChessOlympiads of 1982 and 1996 at Lausanne and Armenia is from Nellore.Many board games played with dice are popular in rural areas. Smallvillages host cockfight and bullfight events for special occasions.


The district has long list of local newspapers such as Zaminryot,Lawyer, Nellore News, Gudur News, Nagarabheri and much more. Thoughmost of them were swept away by district editions of the main statenewspapers like Vaartha, Eenadu and Andhrajyothy, only Zaminryot isstill a popular news item.
The popular TV Channels are state wide telugu cable channels ETV, Gemini and Teja and local city cable.

Flora and Fauna

Nellore is rich in flora and fauna. It had a lush coastal belt, moist Eastern Ghats, dry forests and short bushes.
The fauna is equally wonderful. Pulicat Lake near Sullurpeta,75-80 km from Nellore, is a habitat for a variety of aquatic &terrestrial birds like flamingoes, painted storks, grey pelicans andseagulls and much more. There is a sanctuary called Nelapattu Bird Sancturay,on the banks of Pulicat lake, is spread over 486 km². It boasts thefamous Siberian Cranes and nearly 160 species of birds. The annualFlamingo Festival is celebrated at this bird sanctuary at Nelapattu.
Nellore district is also famous good lakes and beach parks. Kotha Koduru , located 30 km from Nellore has a picturesque beach. Maipadu beach , located 14 km from Nellore, is famous for dunes of sand and gaint sea waves. Nellore Lake park (Nellore cheruvu, near Podalakur road) provides paddle boating, speed boats, deluxe boats and a restaurant.


Nellore has abundant of temples and few of the famous temples are listed here.

Jonnawada Temple of Kamakshi Devi
Ranganayaka Temple, this temple is situated on the banks of the river Pennar.
Jonnawada-Located12 km from Nellore, It is famous for the temple of Goddess Kamakshi,praying to whom is believed to relieve one from all problems anddiseases. A \'Sri Chakram\' installed by Sri Jagadguru Sankaracharya. Itis also one of the oldest temples in Nellore(1150CE). Nearby hill Narasimha Konda is also famous for another deity called Narasimha Swamy.
Penchalakona- Located 70 km from Nellore in Rapurmandal. A major pilgrimage centre. It is famous for the temple of SriPenusila Narsimha Swamy, situated at the foot of a hill. Mountains anddense forests surround the scenic spot.
Someswara Swamy Temple - A famous Siva Temple built during the 7th century AD near somasila dam.
Ramathirdham-31 km from Nellore, it is famous for the temple of Sri RamalingeswaraSwamy. Lord Siva and Kamakshamma are the presiding deities whileVigneswara and Subramanya Swamy are the also worshipped.
Chengalamma Temple, Sulurpeta- PilgrimCentres. Located 100 km from Nellore, Situated on the banks of riverkalingi is the Chengalamma Temple which represents the culmination ofthree goddesses namely Saraswathi, Mahalaxmi and Parvathi.
Golagamudi Venkaiah Swamy Temple- It is Located 15km from Nellore it is one of the famous temple in nellore.
Kasumur-Located25 km from Nellore, Known for the Dargah of Hazarath Karimillah ShaKhadri alias Mastan valli, a visit to which is believed to cure variousailments. A popular place of pilgrimage.
Sri Raja Rajeshwari Ammavari Devasthanam,Nellore- Sri Arul Jyoti Nataraja Murthy Swamy of Sri Arul JyotiNataraja Murthy Swamy Ashram Pitadhipathi wished to have a temple forSri Devi. In 1968 Sri Ratna Swamy Mudiliar.
Sri Venugopala Swamy Devasthanam, Moolapet,Nellore-Built in 1883, the presiding deity of the temple is Sri RukminiSatyabhama Sametha Sri Venugopala Swamy. The idols are in lblack ...Udayagiri Fort-Located 96 km from Nellore, This is the site of a mightyfortress built by the Vijayanagar Kings in the 14th century. A toweringpeak can be seen here.


Nellore people participated in Indian Independence movement andalso in fight for formation of separate state for Telugu people.Notable freedom fighters are Muttharaju Gopalarao and Potti Sriramulu. People of Nellore district has vivid interest in politics. It produced two former chief ministers of state, Dr Bezawada Gopal Reddy and Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy.The main political parties of the district are Congress and TeluguDesam party. Communist parties of India also have more followerscompared to the neighboring districts like Cuddappah and Ongole. Puchalapalli Sundaraiah, the great communist who sacrificed his life and properties for poor practiced communism here.
There are many patrons for the causes of district. Notable amongthem is Rebala Laxminarasa Reddy, who donated the town hall andpediatric hospital and Venkata Giri Raja, who constructed first collegein the Nellore.


Venkatagiri fort, Venkata giri—70 km from Nellore
Udayagiri Fort
Ranganayaka Temple, more than 500 years old temple with huge 29 m tall Galigopuram.
Bhairavakonda Caves


Yuga Kavi\'Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, \'acollossus and immortal of literature, who is a trendsetter both inpoetry and criticism and occupies a place of crucial importance in thedevelopment and evolution of Modern Indian literature, is from Nellore.His books have been translated into English, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali,Kannada, and Greek\'.He is the only person to have been nominated for Nobel prize for his contribution to literary field from India.West Bengal government conferred him with "\'Rashtrendu"(Moon of the Nation).Telugu University conferred Honorary D.Litt on him in 1994.He received "Kalidas Samman" award from Madhya Pradhesh government.He won Central Sahitya Akademi fellowship in 1999.The other important awards Seshendra received are ‘Subrahmanya Bharati Ekta Award’ from the Hindi Academy, Rashtriya Sanskriti Puraskar’, ‘Ugadi Puraskar’, ‘Tilak Award’ and ‘Sahitya Ratna 2001’ from Sri Ram Sahitya Mandal, Himachal Pradesh. He has been nominated as a member to the ‘Kendriya Hindi Samithi’ by Prime Minister of India. He was selected for Hamsa Award, in 2004-05, by the Govt. of AP.
Seshendra’s deep scholarship in Vedas, Upanishads and Kavyas hasplaced him in a unique position among the scholarly stallwarts of thecountry.His Magnum Opus ‘Naa Desham, Naa Prajalu’(‘My Country, My People’ in English, ‘Meri Dharti, Mere Log’in Hindiand Urdu ) brought Seshendra prominence as one of the outstanding poetsof India.Epics like ADHUNIK MAHABHARATHAM, JANAVAMSAM Signalledhis arrival on the Indian literary scene clearly establishing him as amajor voice of India. Added to this are his books of criticism "SHODASI"(A TANTRIC COMMENTARY OF VALMIKI’S RAMAYAN) SWARNA HAMSA (A TANTRIC COMMENTARY OF HARSHA Bhatta"s naishadhiya charitam) and KAVI SENA MANIFESTO (ADHINIK KAVYA SASTRA) .

During British period, \'Nellore\' was the only education center in the regions that constituted the current day Andhra Pradesh.
The main entertainment in the region is movies and related activities. S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, one of the India\'s top singers hailed from Nellore. Famous telugu lyrics writer Acharya Atreya is from this region. Pattabi Rami Reddy,a poet and director from Nellore wrote Ragala Dozen (A Dozen Melodies),a collection that recorded his observations in Madras and Nellore. Healso produced a Telugu film, Pellinaati Pramanalu, the National awardwinner, and directed films Samskara, Chandamarutha, Sringaramasa, andDevara Kaadu.[9]. Nellore also is place of many yesteryear telugu actors like Rajanala and Ramana Reddy.

Art and Literature

Nellore region produced famous Telugu artists ranging from ancient poets like Tikkana and to modern artists like Atreya. Ancient telugu poets Tikkana, Molla, Marana, Ketana laid foundations for telugu literature here. Tikkana, the second in Kavitrayam translated Sanskrit epic Mahabharat. Molla, the second telugu poetess had translated Ramayaninto telugu. Ketana, a disciple of Tikkana, dedicated his work called"Dasakumara Charitram" to Tikkana. Ketana also wroteAndhrabashabushanam, a grammar book for telugu. Marana, another poetand disciple of Tikkana wrote "Markandeya Puranam". Ramarajabhushanudu from this region was patronized by Krishnadevaraya.


Most people of the district speak Telugu. South eastern side of thedistrict speak Tamil as well. Most people live in villages (as opposedto cities or towns). While men can be seen in pants and suits, as wellas in more traditional attire such as dhotis and lungis, women mostly limit themselves to sarees.


The population of the district was 2,668,564 of which 22.45% were urban as of 2001.[8] Total population has reached up to 7 lakhs according to recent assembly elections census.


The National Highway 5 (India) serves the major cities, Naidupeta, Gudur, Nellore and Kavali in the district.
The nearest international airport is about 170 km south at Chennai.
The national railway runs throughout the length of the district. Thesection of east coast railway from Nellore town to Gudur, formerly onthe metre gauge, has been converted to the standard gauge.


Nellore District has 11 state assembly constituencies, namely Allur, Atmakur, Gudur, Kavali, Kovur, Nellore, Rapur, Sarvepalli, Sullurpeta, Udayagiri and Venkatagiri.[7] Nellore district also contributes to three seats in the Parliament of India, namely Nellore, Tirupati and Ongole.
It comprises 46 Revenue Mandals, 12 Agriculture Sub Divisions and 3Revenue Divisions (Nellore, Kavali and Gudur) and 1204 Revenue Villagesin which 1135 are inhabited. Number of Gram Panchayats are 968 and thenumber of Municipalities are three, namely Nellore, Kavali and Gudur.
Nellore district is divided into the following 46 mandals.
Allur, 15 villages.
Ananthasagaram, 23 villages.
Anumasamudrampeta, 19 villages.
Atmakur, 23 villages.
Balayapalle, 24 villages.
Bhogolu, 14 villages.
Buchireddipalem, 12 villages.
Chejerla, 22 villages.
Chillakur, 31 villages.
Chittamur, 23 villages.
Dagadarthi, 11 villages.
Dakkili, 26 villages.
Doravarisatram, 22 villages.
Duttalur, 17 villages.
Gudur, 22 villages.
Indukurpet, 18 villages.
Jaladanki, 16 villages.
Kaligiri, 23 villages.
Kaluvoya, 19 villages.
Kavali, 21 villages.
Kodavalur, 17 villages.
Kondapuram, 19 villages.
Kota, 20 villages.
Kovur, 5 villages.
Manubolu, 18 villages.
Marripadu, 24 villages.
Muthukur, 19 villages.
Naidupeta, 18 villages
Nellore, 29 villages.
Ozili, 26 villages.
Pellakur, 24 villages.
Podlakur, 29 villages.
Rapur, 46 villages (34 Panchayats)
Seetharamapuram, 14 villages
Sangam, 19 villages.
Sullurpeta, 19 villages
Sydapuram, 30 villages.
Tada with 17 villages.
Thotapalligudur, 21 villages.
Udayagiri, 16 villages
Vakadu, 18 villages.
Varikuntapadu, 24 villages
Venkatachalam, 25 villages.
Vinjamur, 11 villages.
Venkatagiri with 24 villages.
Vidavalur, 11 villages.


The handloom sector is a small scale industry and next to agriculture by the number of people depend on it. Venkatagiri and Patur are important handloom centres in the district noted for their traditional handcrafted fine cotton and silk sarees embrodied with pure zari.
The following are major industries located in Nellore District
SHAR (SriHarikota High Altitude Range) located in Sriharikota, Nellore Dt.
Kovur Thermal Power Plant ( defunct)
Nellore Nippo Batteries factory.
Acqua and fisheries throughout the district
Mica Mines in Gudur and Sydapuram mandals.
work in progress Adidas Apache in Tada, Nellore dt.
Krishnapatnam Thermal Station.
Krishnapatnam Port trust.
Krishnapatnam is a major port and market center situated at a distance of 20 km. The port is hoped to become a world-class deep water port. Iron ore and granite are being exported from KrishnaPatnam to other countries like China.One Railway line links it with Vekatachalam on main railway line. Tadais at a distance of 80 km from Nellore with new industrial ventureslike the Adidas factory and Tata\'s Leather park.
Projects in progress: An International Leather park will startworking soon at Krishnapatnam. A railway line is being constructed fromKrishnapattanam to Obulavari palle to link up this port with MumbaiRailway line. Construction of two Ultra Mega Power Projects with thecapacity of 4000 MW each at Krishnapatnam is going on. Recently Centralgovernment gave clearance to IFFCO fertilizer factory at Regadi Chelikanear Nellore. Central government is also planning to setup a \'PetroChemical Terminal\' at Krishnapatnam. Air Deccan is going to setup anairport near Nellore city. Construction work of two textile parks atMenakur near Venmkatgiri/Nayudupet will start soon.


Nellore is also famous for quality rice production and aqua (prawn and fish) culture. Nellore district is called the "Shrimpcapital of India" due to is high production of cultured shrimp. About70 percent of the total work force is dependent upon agriculture eitheras farmers or as agricultural labour. The main crops are rice paddy andsugar cane. It is particularly famous for a rice breed called"Molagolukulu". Other crops are cotton, lemon and oil seeds (likepeanuts) and horticultural seeds.
A dam is located at Somasila across the Pennar River as it flows through the narrow Velikonda Hills. Another dam is located at Gandipalem across a tributary of Pennar. They support irrigation for many villages.


Proximity to the sea as well as to agricultural heartland has helped Nellore district to grow. The sea-borne trade from Mipadu, Krishnapatnam and other port cities in district is on rise, but insignificant compared to trade via the road and rail.


Winter: January and February
Summer: March to May
South West Monsoons - June to September
North East Monsoons - October to December
The Maximum temperature is 36-46c during summer and the minimumtemperature is 23-25c during winter. The rainfall ranges from 700-1000mm through South West and North East Monsoons. Nellore is subject bothto droughts and to floods based on the seasons.


The district lies between between 13 30’ and 15 6’ of Northernlatitude and 70 5’ and 80 15’ of Eastern latitude. Nellore\'s total landarea is 13,076 square kilometers (8,761) sq. miles). It is bordered bythe Bay of Bengal to the east, the state of Tamil Nadu to the South, the district of Cuddapah, and the district of Prakasam to the north. The eastern side consists of area of low lying land extending from the base of the Eastern Ghatsto the sea. The west side of the district is separated from Cuddapahdistrict by Veligonda hills. The district is split by the River Pennar and is located on both south and north banks of it.
Nellore\'s total land area is 13,076 square kilometers (8,761) sq. miles). It has an average elevation of 19 metres (62 feet).
About the half of the total area is cultivated and the rest is wasteland [6] because of it is rocky land, sandy coastline or covered with scrub jungles. Pennar,Swarnamukhi and Gundlakamma are the main rivers that flow through themost of the district. They are not navigable, and are mainly used forirrigation purposes. Tributaries to Penna like Kandaleru and Boggeruserve the remaining area.
This area is rich in particular kind of flint called quartzite, out of which prehistoric man made his weapons and implements.

Nellore History

Mauyan Empire
Nellore District had an important role in telugu history during the emergence of the language and also during the formation of the state.Mauryas, Early Cholas and Pallavas
With the rise of the Mauryan Empire, many parts of the Andhra Pardesh including Nellore came under its influence and was part of the Ashokanempire in the third century B.C. The caves near Nellore haveinscriptions in the brahmi script used by Ashoka. The Cholas were animportant dynasty in the south peninsula. The early Cholas ruledbetween the 1st and the 4th centuries A.D. The district was part of thefirst and the most famous Chola, Karikalan. He is well known for hisgreat engineering marvel.
Chola power declined with frequent attacks by the Pallavas,Cheras and Pandyas, until they rose to power again around the 9thcentury. Chola rule was broken when the Cholas were overthrown by SimhaVishnu Pallava and the region came under the Pallava rule between thefourth and sixth centuries A.D. With the dawn of the seventh century,the political centre of Gravity of the Pallavas shifted to the southand weakened their power towards the north. Several ancient Pallava andChola temple are in Udayagiri village. Several ancient Pallava andChola temple are in Udayagiri village. Several inscriptions aboutPallava rule were found in the Guntur-Nellore tract of the AndhraPradesh. The big four storeyed cave at Vundavalli and 8 cave temple atBhairavkonda resembles the Pallava architecture during Mahendravarma\'speriod.

Nellore District

Nellore District is a district of India's Andhra Pradesh state. Nellore is famous for high paddy yield, and so it got its name from "nelli", an equivalent word for paddy in Tamil. The population ofthe district was 2,668,564 of which 22.45% were urban as of 2001.
Nellore city is its administrative headquarters. Three major cities in the district are Nellore, Kavali and Gudur. It is located in the southern most east corner of Andhra Pradesh. It is bordered by the Bay of Bengal to the east, the state of Tamil Nadu to the South, the district of Cuddapah to the west, and the district of Prakasam to the north.
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